Professor Paul Weindling

Wellcome Trust Research Professor in the History of Medicine

Paul Weindling joined Oxford Brookes University in 1998 as Research Professor in the History of Medicine. From 1978 until 1998 he was at the Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine at the University of Oxford. Following graduation from the University of Oxford, he completed an MA and PhD at University College London. 

He was from 1999-2004 a member of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft President’s Committee for the History of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft under National Socialism, and was on the Advisory Boards of the AHRC project on German-Jewish refugees, and on the history of the Robert Koch-Institute. He is currently on the advisory board of the project of the German Society for Psychiatry project on psychiatrists in Nazi Germany, and a member of the project on the history of the German Foundation for Memory, Responsibility and the Future. He has advised the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Swiss Research Council, and other national funding agencies. He is a Trustee of the Council for Assisting Refugee Academics (CARA).



Special Subject for the MA in Health, Medicine and Society:

  • P68502 Ethics & Ideas: From the Hippocratic Oath to Informed Consent


History of eugenics; public health organizations; twentieth century disease patterns.

Professor Paul Weindling’s research covers evolution and society, public health, and human experimentation post-1800. He has especial interests in eugenics, human experiments, corporate philanthropies like the Rockefeller Foundation, and medical refugees. He has recently completed a biographical project on the remarkable life of psychiatrist John West Thompson. 

Research in progress is as follows:

  1. Arising from research on Nazi medical war crimes and the origins of informed consent, he is trying to establish how many victims of Nazi human experiments there were, and who they were. The aim is to establish a comprehensive analysis for reference purposes.
  2. European Medical Refugees in Great Britain, 1930s to 50s. This research is based on a database of nearly 4800 medical refugees, as well as textual archives held in the Centre. The aim is to evaluate the place of the refugees in the overall context of the modernisation of British medicine. The records cover medical researchers, medical practitioners, dental surgeons, psychoanalysts, psychologists, nurses, and all other health-related occupations. Children are included who came as refugees to the UK.
  3. International Health in the Twentieth Century. This project examines the shift from international sanitary agreements to major organisations for international health. The Rockefeller Foundation played a key role in the interwar period, and raises controversies concerning imperialism and the social implications of professionalisation. A crucial issue is the extent that international organisations were expected to be subservient to governments or whether they could take autonomous initiatives.
  4. Eugenics as an International Movement. This study considers the origins of eugenics as an organised movement on an international basis. Particular attention is paid to the spread of eugenics societies and their membership, and to the support for eugenics of philanthropists and foundations.

Grants currently held

Recent grants

  • Principal Investigator (2009-14) for Wellcome Trust Strategic Award for research project: 'Health Care in Public and Private'. Period of award 1 October 2007 - 31 May 2014.
  • Research grant from 'The Rabbi Israel Miller Fund for Shoah Research, Documentation and Education of the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany, Inc' for a project: 'Victims of Nazi Medical Experiments'. Period of award 1 August 2011 - 31 March 2014.
  • AHRC Research Grant (with Marius Turda) for a project: 'Human Experiments Under National Socialism: Victims, Perpetrators and Post-War Trials'. Period of award: 1 October 2007 - 30 June 2011.
  • Wellcome Trust Pilot Project Grant for a study entitled: 'Refugee Nurses in Great Britain, 1933-1945'. Period of award 3 January 2010 - 31 December 2010.


  • Organiser of an international symposium: 'Reassessing Nazi Human Experiments and Coerced Research, 1933-1945: New Findings, Interpretations and Problems' 4 - 7 July 2013, at Wadham College, Oxford.


  • Books
  • Book chapters
  • Other


  • Victims and Survivors of Nazi Human Experiments: Science and Suffering in the Holocaust (London: Bloomsbury, 2014).
  • John W. Thompson, Psychiatrist in the Shadow of the Holocaust (Rochester, NY: Rochester University Press, 2010), pp. 440. Paperback edition 2013.
  • Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials: From Medical War Crimes to Informed Consent (Basingstoke, Palgrave-Macmillan: 2004), pp. 482. Paperback edition 2006.
  • Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890-1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 463. Russian translation of pages 352-72, funded by Volkswagen Stiftung, 2008, pp. 260-293.
  • Health, Race and German Politics between National Unification and Nazism, 1870-1945 Cambridge Monographs in the History of Medicine, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 641. Paperback edn, 1993. Pp. 493-7 reprinted as ‘Racial Hygiene and Professional Leadership’, Neil Gregor ed., Nazism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, Oxford Readers, 2000), pp. 258-62.
  • L’hygiène de la race. L’hygiène raciale et l’eugénisme médical en l’allemagne 1870-1933 (Paris: La Découverte, 1998), pp. 304.
  • Darwinism and Social Darwinism in Imperial Germany: The Contribution of the Cell Biologist Oscar Hertwig (1849 - 1922) = Forschungen zur Medizin- und Biologiegeschichte vol. 3, (Stuttgart: G. Fischer in association with Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur Mainz, 1991), pp. 355.
Edited Volumes
  • Healthcare in Private and Public from the Early Modern Period to 2000 (London: Routledge, 2014). Publication date December 2014.
  • (Editor, with Bjöern Felder) Baltic Eugenics. Bio-Politics, Race and Nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940 (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2013).
  • (Editor, with Shula Marks and Laura Wintour), In Defence of Learning: The Plight, Persecution, and Placement of Academic Refugees, 1933-1980s (Proceedings of the British Academy) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011)
  • (Editor, with Volker Roelcke and Louise Westwood), International Relations in Psychiatry: Britain, Germany, & the United States to World War II (Rochester Studies in Medical History - Boydell and Brewer, 2010).
  • (Editor) Special Issue on: ‘Medical Refugees in Britain and the Wider World’, Social History of Medicine, issue 3 (2009).
  • (Editor, M. Turda ) 'Blood and Homeland': Eugenics and Racial Nationalism in Central and Southeast Europe, 1900-1940 (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2006).
  • (Editor) International Health Organisations and Movements 1918-1939, Cambridge Monographs in the History of Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. xvi, 337.
  • (Editor) The Social History of Occupational Health (London: Croom Helm for the Society for the Social History of Medicine, 1985), pp. 267.
  • (Editor, with P. Corsi) Information Sources for the History of Science and Medicine, London: Butterworths, 1983, pp. 531. [Commended for the Besterman Medal by the Library Association, 1984]. Revised Italian edn: Storia della Scienza e della Medicina - Bibliografia Critica (Rome: Theoria, 1993).

Book chapters

Chapters and Journal Articles (listed together by year)
  • 'Public and Private in the Modernisation of Medicine: Politics, Professions, and Practices', in Paul Weindling (ed.), Healthcare in Private and Public from the Early Modern Period to 2000 (London: Routledge, 2014). Publication date December 2014.
  • 'International Health between Public and Private in the Twentieth Century', in Paul Weindling (ed.), Healthcare in Private and Public from the Early Modern Period to 2000 (London: Routledge, 2014). Publication date 2014.
  • 'Nazi Human Experiments: The Victims’ Perspective and the Post-Second World War Discourse', in Erika Dyck and Larry Stewart (eds), The Uses of Humans in Experiments (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2014), in press.
  • 'Victims of Human Experiments and Coercive Research under National Socialism: Gender and Racial Aspects', Sheldon Rubenfeld (ed.), Human Subjects Research After the Holocaust (New York, Heidelberg: Springer). Publication date July 2014.
  • (with Howard Brody, Sarah Leonard, Jing-Bao Nie) 'United States Responses to Japanese Wartime Inhuman Experimentation after World War II: National Security and Wartime Exigency’, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 23, 2 (2014), 220-230.
  • 'From Scientific Object to Commemorated Victim: the Children of the Spiegelgrund', History and Philosophy of Life Sciences, 35 (2013), 415-430.
  • 'Race, Eugenics and National Identity in the Eastern Baltic: from Racial Surveys to Racial States', in B. M. Felder and P. J. Weindling (eds), Baltic Eugenics. Bio-Politics, Race and Nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940 (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2013), 33-48.
  • 'Der Nürnberger Ärzteprozess: Ursprünge, Verlauf, und Nachwirkungen', in Kim Priemel and Alexa Stiller (eds), N M T. Die Nürnberger Militärtribunale zwischen Geschichte, Gerechtigkeit und Rechtsschöpfung (Hamburg: Hamburger Edition, 2013), 158-193.
  • ‘Victims, witnesses and the ethical legacy of the Nuremberg Medical Trial’, in Kim Priemel and Alexa Stiller (eds), Reassessing the Nuremberg Military Tribunals: Transitional Justice, Trial Narratives, and Historiography (New York; Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2012).
  • 'Julian Huxley and the Continuity of Eugenics from Imperialism to 1960s Britain', Journal of Modern European History (2012), 480-498.
  • '"Sonstige Personenschäden" – die Entschädigungspraxis der Stiftung "Erinnerung, Verantwortung und Zukunft",  Constantin Goschler (ed.), Die Entschädigung von NS-Zwangsarbeit am Anfang des 21. Jahrhunderts (Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2012), 4 vols., vol. 2, 197-225.
  • Stephan Kolb, Paul Weindling [corresponding author], Volker Roelcke, Horst Seithe, ‘Apologising for Nazi medicine: a constructive starting point’, The Lancet, 380, 9843 (2012), 722-723.
  • 'Searching for lost victims. Paul Weindling, Professor of history of medicine at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments', BBC History, 
  • 'Medizinische Gräueltaten in Mauthausen und Gusen: Die Opfer erzwungener medizinischer Forschung', KZ-Gedenkstätte Mauthausen - Mauthausen Memorial Jahrbuch (2011), 41-54.
  • ‘From disease prevention to population control: The realignment of Rockefeller Foundation policies 1920s–1950s’, in Helke Rausch and John Krige (eds), American Foundations and the Coproduction of World Order in the Twentieth Century (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2012), Schriftenreihe der FRIAS School of History, 2012, 125-145.
  • 'Die Opfer von Menschenversuchen und gewaltsamer Forschung im Nationalsozialismus' mit Fokus auf Geschlecht und Rasse. Ergebnisse eines Forschungsprojekts’, in Insa Eschebach and Astrid Ley (eds),  Geschlecht und Rasse in der NS-Medizin (Berlin: Metropol Verlag, 2012, 81-100. 
  • '"Cleansing" anatomical collections: The politics of removing specimens from German anatomical and medical collections 1988–92', Annals of Anatomy, 194, 3 (2012), 237-242.
  • 'Krytycy, komentatorzy i przeciwnicy eugeniki 1880-1950', Magdalena Gawin, Kamila Uzarczyk, (eds), Eugenika – biopolityka – państwo. Z historii europejskich ruchów eugeniczyych w pierwszej połowie XX w., Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Neriton, Instytut Historii PAN, 49-64. Revised English translation as: ‘Critics and Opponents of Eugenics’, East Central Europe, vol. 38 issue 1 July 01, 2011. p. 79-96 - Special Issue on: Biopolitics and Eugenics in the First Half of the Twentieth Century.
  • ‘The Social History of Public and Private Medicine in the Perspective of South East Europe’, in Marius Turda (ed.), ‘Special Issue: Health and Society: Private and Public Medical Traditions in Greece and the Balkans, 1453-1920’, Deltos: Journal of the History of Hellenic Medicine (2012), 62-64. 
  • ‘Medical Refugees from Czechoslovakia in the UK. A Total Population Approach to Assistance Organisations and Careers, 1938-1945’, in M. Stella, Antonin Kostlán and Sona Štrabáňová (eds), Scholars in Exile and Dictatorships of the 20th Century. May 24-26, 2011, Prague. Conference Proceedings (Prague Academy of Sciences, 2011). 
  • ‘Menschenversuche und Euthanasie – das Zitieren von Namen, historische Aufarbeitung und Gedenken’, Arbeitskreis zur Erforschung der nationalsozialistischen “Euthanasie” und Zwangssterilisation’, in (ed.), Den Opfern ihre Namen geben. NS- “Euthanasie”-Verbrechen, historisch-politische Verantwortung und Erinnerungskultur (Bad Irsee: Impulse, 2011), pp.115-32.
  • ‘“Our Racial Friends”: Disease, Poverty and Social Darwinism 1860-1940’, in Nicholas Saul and Simon J. James (eds), The evolution of literature: legacies of Darwin in European cultures (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2011), pp.35-50.
  • ‘From Refugee Assistance to Freedom of Learning: the Strategic Vision of A.V. Hill’, in Shula Marks, Paul Weindling and Laura Wintour (eds), In Defence of Learning The Plight, Persecution, and Placement of Academic Refugees, 1933-1980s (Proceedings of the British Academy) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 59-76
  • ‘Racial Expertise and German Eugenic Strategies for Southeastern Europe’, in Christian Promitzer, Marius Turda, Sevasti Trubeta (eds), Health, Hygiene and Eugenics in Southeastern Europe to 1945 (Budapest: Central European University Press 2011), pp. 27-54.
  • ‘From Scientific Object to Commemorated Victim: The Children of the Spiegelgrund’, in Ilana Löwy (ed.), Microscope Slides: Reassessing a Neglected Historical Resource (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, 2011), pp. 77-88.
  • ‘Medizinische Gräueltaten in Mauthausen und Gusen: Die Opfer erzwungener medizinischer Forschung’, KZ-Gedenkstätte Mauthausen - Mauthausen Memorial Jahrbuch (2011), 41-54. 
  • ‘Critics, Commentators and Opponents of Eugenics 1880s–1950s’, East Central Europe, 38, 1 (2011), 79-96.
  • ‘Genetics, Eugenics and the Holocaust’, in Denis R. Alexander and Ron Numbers (eds), Biology and Ideology from Descartes to Dawkins (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2010).
  • 'Alien Psychiatrists. Britain and its Psychiatric Refugees 1933-45', in Louise Westwood, Paul Weindling and Volker Roelcke (eds), International Relations in Psychiatry: Britain, Germany, & the United States to World War II (Rochester Studies in Medical History - Boydell and Brewer, 2010), pp.53-70.
  • ‘The Extraordinary Career of the Virologist Eugen Haagen', in Marion Hulverscheidt and Anja Laukotter (eds), Infektion und Institution: Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte des Robert Koch-Instituts im Nationalsozialismus (Goettingen: Wallstein, 2009).
  • ‘Medical Refugees in Britain and the Wider World’, Social History of Medicine, 22, 3 (2009), 451-459.
  • ‘Medical Refugees and the Modernisation of Twentieth-century British Medicine’, Social History of Medicine, 22, 3 (2009), 489-511.
  • ‘A City Regenerated: Eugenics, Race and Welfare in Interwar Vienna’, in Deborah Holmes and Lisa Silverman (eds), Interwar Vienna: Culture between Tradition and Modernity (New York: Camden House, 2009).
  • ‘The Fractured Crucible: Images of the Scientific Survival. The Defence of Ludwik Fleck’, in Johannes Fehr, Nathalie Jas and Ilana Löwy (eds), Penser avec Ludwik Fleck – Investigating a Life Studying Life Sciences (Zurich: Ludwik Fleck Centre, Collegium Helveticum, 2009), pp.47-62.
  • ‘Migration, race et génocide: l’émergence d’un nouveau discours sur les droits de l’homme’, in Pilar Gonzale-Bernaldo, Manuela Martini, Marie-Louise Pelus-Kaplan (eds), Étrangers et Sociétés: contacts et regards croisés (Rennes: Presse Universitaire de Rennes, 2009), pp. 265-70.
  • ‘The Nazi Medical Experiments’, Ezekiel J. Emanuel et al. (ed.), The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics (Oxford: OUP, 2008), pp. 18-30.
  • ‘Alice Ricciardi von Platen’, The Guardian (13 March, 2008).
  • “Deadly Medicine”, (essay review), Social History of Medicine (2008), vol. 21(1): 208-212
  • ‘Foreword’: to Michal Simunek and Dietmar Schultze (eds), Die Nationalsozialistische “Euthanasie” im Reichsgau Sudetenland und Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren 1939-1945 (Prague: Institute of Contemporary History of the Academy of Sciences, 2008).
  • ‘The Origins of the Hospice in the Shadow of the Holocaust’, Giving, vol.. 2 (2008) .
  • “Entschädigung der Sterilisierungs- und Euthanasie-Opfer nach 1945”, Klaus-Dietmar Henke (ed), Tödliche Medizin im Nationalsozialismus. Von der Rassenhygiene zum Massenmord (Cologne: Böhlau, 2008), 31-46.
  • “Medical Refugees as Practitioners and Patients: Public, Private and Practice Records”, Yearbook of the Research Centre for German and Austrian Exile Studies, vol. 9, Refugee Archives: Theory and Practice, pp. 141-156.
  • “Einleitung Volk and Forschung: eine Wissenschaft für die Nation”, Michael Fahlbusch and Ingo Haar (eds), Handbuch der völkischen Wissenschaften (Munich: Saur, 2008), 13-18.
  • “ “For the Love of Christ”. The French Vatican Mission to Germany”, Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 43 no. 3 (2008) – Special issue ‘Relief and Rehabilitation’, Guest Editor Jessica Reinisch.
  • ‘Un internationaliste visionnaire confronté aux réalités de la guerre froide: John W. Thompson et le programme de l’UNESCO pour l’Allemagne, 1945-1955’, 60 ans d’histoire de l’UNESCO. Actes du colloque international 16-18 Novembre 2005 (Paris: UNESCO, 2007), 253-262.
  • BBC Television “See Hear”. BBC Television: See Hear! Contributor to programme on the Deaf Holocaust (7 November).
  • “Zwischen Forschung und Genozid. Der Nürnberger Ärzteprozess 1946/47: Raphael Lemkins Standpunkt über Menschenversuche und Genozid”, Acta Historica Leopoldina, no. 48 (2007), 79-87.
  • ‘Blood’, ‘Demographic Policy’, ‘Eugenics’, ‘Euthanasia’, ‘H.F.K. Gunther’, ‘Health’, ‘Medicine’ in: Cyprian Blamires (ed), Historical Encyclopaedia of World Fascism (ABC, Clio, 2007)
  • “Ansteckungsherde. Die deutsche Bakteriologie als wissenschaftlicher Rassissmus, 1890-1920”, Philipp Sarasin et al. (eds), Bakteriologie und Moderne. Studien zur Biopolitik des Unsichtbaren 1870-1920 (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 2007), 354-374.
  • “German Overtures to Russia, 1919-1925. Between Racial Expansion and National Coexistence”, Susan Solomon (ed), Doing Medicine Together. Germany and Russia between the Wars (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006), 35-60.
  • 'Medical Refugees inWales 1930s-50s', in Pamela Michael and Charles Webster (eds), Health and Society in Twentieth-Century Wales (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2006), 183-200.
  • 'Central Europe confronts German racial hygiene: Friedrich Hertz, Hugo Iltis and Ignaz Zollschan as critics of German racial hygiene', in M. Turda and P. Weindling (eds), 'Blood and Homeland': Eugenics and Racial Nationalism in Central and Southeast Europe, 1900-1940 (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2006).
  • 'The evolution of Jewish identity: Ignaz Zollschan between Jewish and Aryan race theories, 1910-1945', Geoffrey Cantor and Marc Swetlitz (eds), Jewish Tradition and the Challenge of Darwinism (Chicago University Press, 2006), 116-136.
  • ''From Medical War Crimes to Compensation: the Plight of Victims of Human Experiments", Wolfgang Eckart (ed.), Man, Medicine and the State (Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag, 2006), 237-249.
  • '"Belsenitis". Liberating Belsen, its Hospitals, and Selection for Re-emigration, 1945-1948'. Science in Context , vol. 19 no. 3 (2006), 401-418.
  • "As origenes da participacao da America Latina na Organizacao da Saude da Liga das Nacoes, 1920-40 [The League of Nations Health Organisation and Latin America]", História, Ciências, Saúde – Manguinhos , vol. 13 no. 3 (2006).
  • 'Inter-war morbidity surveys: communities as health experiments', in Iris Borowy and Wolf D. Gruner (eds), Facing Illness in Troubled Times. Health in Europe in the Interwar Years 1918-1939 (Frankfurt/M: Peter Lang, 2005).
  • 'L’eugénisme comme médicine sociale: l’époque de Weimar', Revue d’histoire de la Shoah, 183, (2005), 135-142. [Volume title: Classer/penser/exclure. De l’eugénisme à l’hygiène raciale].
  • 'Akteure in eigener Sache: Die Aussagen der Überlebenden und die Verfolgung der medizinischen Kriegsverbrechen nach 1945', in C. Sachse (ed), Die Verbindung nach Auschwitz - Biowissenschaften und Menschenversuche an Kaiser-Wilhelm-Instituten (Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2004), pp. 255-282.
  • 'Verdacht, Kontrolle, Aussöhnung. Adolf Butenandts Platz in der Wissenschaftspolitik der Westalliierten (1945-1955)', in Wolfgang Schieder and Achim Trunk (eds), Adolf Butenandt und die Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft.Wissenschaft, Industrie und Politik im “Dritten Reich” (Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2004), pp. 320-46.
  • 'From Germ Theory to Social Medicine. Public Health 1880-1930', in Deborah Brunton (ed), Medicine Transformed. Health, Disease and Society in Europe, 1800-1930 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 257-283.
  • '"No Mere Murder Trial": The Discourse on Human Experiments at the Nuremberg Medical Trial', in V. Roelcke and G. Maio (eds), Twentieth Century Ethics of Human Subjects Research (Stuttgart: Steiner, 2004), pp.167-180.
  • “Internationalism and Public Health”, “Public and Private Patronage of Biological and Medical Research”, (Enciclopedia Italiana, in press), vol. 8 Sez. Biomedicina, 833-837.
  • “Code de Nuremberg”, “Nazisme et médecine”, “Typhus” in D. Lecourt and C. Sinding (eds), Dictionnaire de la pensée médicale (Paris: puf, 2004), pp. 263-66, 782-5, 1170-5.
  • ‘Gebrochene Lebenswege. Erfahrungen medizinischer Flüchtinge in Grossbritannien und weiteren Ländern”, Albrecht Scholtz and Caris-Petra Heidel (eds) Emigrantenschicksale. Einfluss der jüdischen Emigranten auf Sozialpolitik und Wissenschaft in den Aufnahmeländern. Medizin und Judentum vol. 7 (Frankfurt am Main: Mabuse, 2004), pp. 9-18.
  • BBC Television: See Hear! Consultant and contributor to 'The Aryan Race: eradicating the inferior', 6 and 9 March 2004.
  • ‘Kenneth Mellanby’ in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004).
  • 'Le Code de Nuremberg, Andrew Conway Ivy et les crimes de guerre médicaux nazis', in C. Bonah, E. Lepicard, V. Roelcke (eds), La médicine expérimentale au tribunal (Paris: CPI, 2003), pp. 185-214.
  • 'Alexander Mitscherlich und die deutsche medizinische Kommission beim Nürnberger Ärzteprozess', in Woelck, Sparing, Bayer, Esch (eds), Nach der Diktatur (Düsseldorf, Klartext, 2003), pp. 69-85.
  • 'Genetik und Menschenversuche in Deutschland 1940-1960. Hans Nachtsheim, die Kaninchen von Dahlem und die Kinder vom Bullenhuser Damm', in Hans-Walter Schmuhl (ed.), Rassenforschung an Kaiser-Wilhelm-Instituten vor und nach 1933 (Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2003), pp. 245-274.
  • 'Modernising Eugenics. The Role of Foundations in International Population Studies', In: Giuliana Gemelli and Roy MacLeod (eds), American Foundations in Europe. Grant-Giving Policies, Cultural Diplomacy and Trans-Atlantic Relations, 1920-1980 (Brussels: Peter Lang, 2003), pp. 167-180.[= as in Minerva, 2002]
  • '"Mustergau" Thüringen. Rassenhygiene zwischen Ideologie und Machtpolitik', in: Uwe Hossfeld et al. (ed.), 'Kämpferische Wissenschaft'. Studien zur Universität Jena im Nationalsozialismus (Vienna: Böhlau, 2003), pp. 1013-1026. [revised and updated version of 1991 paper]
  • 'The Nazi Movement and Eugenics', Encyclopedia of the Human Genome (London: Nature Publishing Group, 2003)
  • Radio 4, BBC Wales: contributor to Nazi Blood.
  • 'Modernising Eugenics. The Role of Foundations in International Population Studies', Minerva (2002), 167-179.
  • Foreword to Gabrielle Moser, Sozialhygiene und öffentliches Gesundheitswesen in der Weimarer Republik und der frühen SBZ/DDR (Frankfurt am Main: VAS, 2002), 7-9.'The Medical Publisher J.F. Lehmann and Racial Hygiene', in Sigrid Stöckel (ed), Die "rechte" Nation und ihr Verleger. Politik und Popularisierung im J.F. Lehmanns Verlag 1890-1979 (Berlin: Lehmanns Media, 2002), pp. 159-170.'Dehumanising Medicine', in R. vom Bruch and Brigitte Kaderas (eds),Wissenschaften und Wissenschaftspolitik (Stuttgart: Steiner, 2002), pp. 288-290.
  • 'The Divisions in Weimar Medicine: German Public Health and the League of Nations Health Organization', in Sigrid Stöckel and Ulla Walter (eds), Prävention im 20. Jahrhundert (Weinheim: Juventa, 2002), pp. 110-121.
  • 'The Ethical Legacy of Nazi Medical War Crimes: Human Experiments and International Justice', in Justine Burley and John Harris (eds), A Companion to Genethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002), 53-69.
  • 'Die Rolle der Opfer und der ärztlichen Untersucher bei der Formulierung des Nürnberger Kodex', in Stephan Kolb et al. (ed), Medizin und Gewissen, wenn Würde ein Wert würde… (Frankfurt am Main: Mabuse Verlag, 2002), pp. 42-53.
  • 'Frauen aus medizinischen Berufen als Flüchtlinge in Großbritannien während der 1930er und 1940er Jahre', in Ulrike Lindner und Merith Niehuss (eds), Ärztinnen – Patientinnen. Frauen im deutschen und britishen Gesundheitswesen des 20. Jahrhunderts (Cologne: Böhlau, 2002), pp. 111-127.
  • '"Out of the Ghetto": The Rockefeller Foundation Confronts German Medical Sciences after the Second World War', in William H. Schneider (ed), The Rockefeller Foundation and Biomedicine: International Achievements and Frustrations from World War I to the Cold War (Indiana University Press, 2002), pp. 208-222.
  • 'Les racines françaises du code de Nuremberg', La recherche, no. 7 (avril, 2002), 105-107.
  • 'Physicians as Migrants: Sickness and the Forced Migration of Medical Refugees from Germany 1933-1945', in Peter Marschalck and Karl Heinz Wiedl (eds), Migration und Krankheit (Osnabrück: Rasch, 2001), = IMIS-Schriften 10, pp. 55-64.
  • 'Zur Vorgeschichte des Nürnberger Ärzteprozesses', in Angelika Ebbinghaus and Klaus Dörner (eds), Vernichten und Heilen. Der Nürnberger Ärzteprozess und seine Folgen (Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag, 2001), pp. 26-47. (Paperback edn 2002)'Die Internationale Wissenschaftskommission zur Erforschung medizinischer Kriegsverbrechen', Vernichten und Heilen (2001) 439-451.
  • 'Genocide', in Colin Blakemore and Sheila Jennett (eds), Oxford Companion to the Body (Oxford: OUP, 2001), pp. 315.'Gerechtigkeit aus der Perspektive der Medizingeschichte: “Euthanasie” im Nürnberger Ärzteprozess', in Andreas Frewer and Josef Neumann (eds), Medizingeschichte und Medizinethik. Kontroversen und Begründungsansätze 1900-1950 (Frankfurt: Campus, 2001), pp. 311-333.
  • 'Auf der Spur von Medizinverbrechen: Keith Mant (1919-200) und sein Debut als forensischer Pathologe', 1999. Zeitschrift f. Sozialgeschichte des 20. Und 21. Jahrhunderts, vol. 16 (2001) 129-139.
  • 'The Selection of Defendants and Witnesses at the Nuremberg Medical Trial', in T. Ruzicka et al. (eds), Mensch und Medizin in Totalitären und Demokratischen Systemen (Essen: Klartext, 2001), pp. 93-100.
  • 'Austrian Medical Refugees in Great Britain 1938-1945', in Sonia Horn and Peter Malina (eds), Medizin im Nationalsozialismus – Wege der Aufarbeitung (Vienna: OAK Verlag, 2001), pp. 289-92.
  • 'What Did the Allies Know about Criminal Human Experiments in the War and its Immediate Aftermath?', in Astrid Ley (ed.), Menschenversuche (Erlangen Museum:2001), pp. 52-66.
  • 'The Scientist as Survivor: Ludwik Fleck and the Holocaust', La Lettre de la Maison Française d’Oxford, no. 13 (2001), 85-96.
  • 'Emil von Behring', 'Paul Ehrlich', in Arne Hessenbruch (ed.), Reader’s Guide to the History of Science (London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2001), pp. 71-73, 197-198.‘The Origins of Informed Consent: The International Commission for the Investigation of Medical War Crimes, and the Nuremberg Code’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 75 (2001), 37-71.
  • 'An Overloaded Ark? The Rockefeller Foundation and Refugee Medical Scientists, 1933-1945', Studies in the History and Philosophy of Biology and Biomedical Science, 31 (2000), 477-489.
  • 'From International to Zonal Trials: the Origins of the Nuremberg Medical Trial', Holocaust and Genocide Studies,14 (2000), 367-89.
  • '"Tales from Nuremberg": the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology and Allied Medical War Crimes Policy’, in Doris Kaufmann (ed.), Geschichte der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft im Nationalsozialismus. Bestandsaufnahme und Perspektiven der Forschung, 2 Bde., (Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2000), pp. 621-38.
  • 'European Health between the Wars', in R. Cooter and J. Pickstone (eds), Medicine in the Twentieth Century (Harwood Academic Publishers, 2000), pp. 39-50.
  • “La Fundación Rockefeller y el organismo de salud de la Sociedad de Naciones. Algunas conexiones españolas” in: Rev. Esp. Salud Pública, vol. 74 (2000), (special issue): pp. 15-26.
  • “Biologische Ansichten vom Jahr 2000”, Der Neue Mensch. Obsessionen des 20. Jahrhunderts. Katalog zur Austellung im Deutschen Hygiene-Museum Dresden (Dresden: Cantz, 1999), pp. 69-80.
  • “Biologische Ansichten vom Jahr 2000”, Der Neue Mensch. Obsessionen des 20. Jahrhunderts. Katalog zur Austellung im Deutschen Hygiene-Museum Dresden (Dresden: Cantz, 1999), pp. 69-80.
  • ‘International Eugenics: Swedish Sterilisation in Context’, Scandinavian Journal of History, vol. 24 (1999) 179-97.
  • ‘From Moral Exhortation to Socialised Primary Care: the New Public Health and the Healthy Life, 1918-45’, E. Ocana and T. Ortiz (eds), The Healthy Life (Granada, 1999), 2-7. Extended and revised version in: E. Rodriguez Ocana (ed.), The Politics of the Healthy Life: an International Perspective (Sheffield: European Association for the History of Medicine and Health, 2002), pp. 113-130.
  • ‘Jews in the Medical Profession in Britain and Germany: Problems of Comparison’, Michael Brenner, Rainer Liedtke and David Rechter (eds), Two Nations: British and German Jews in Comparative Perspective (Schriftenreihe wissenschaftlicher Abhandlungen des Leo Baeck Instituts 60) (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1999), 393-406.
  • "Medical Refugees and the Renaissance of Medical History in Great Britain, 1930s - 60s", Wolfgang Eckart (ed.), Medizinhistoriographie in der Neuzeit (Paffenweiler: Centaurus, 1999), pp. 139-51.
  • "Typhus and Scientific Racism: A Social Constructionist Approach", W. Ernst and B. Harris, Race and Modern Medicine (London: Routledge, 1999), 218-234. 
  • ‘Eugenics and Medical War Crimes after 1945’, University of Tartu Historical Museum. Annual Report (1998) 86-99.
  • "Dissecting German Social Darwinism: Historicizing the Biology of the Organic State", Science in Context, vol. 11 (1998) 619-637 (special issue on eugenics, eds. R. Falk and D. Paul).
  • “Editorial. The Winds of Change”, Social History of Medicine, vol. 11 (1998), 357-60.
  • "Journals for the History of Science and Medicine in Great Britain", Nuncius  (1998), 145-152.
  • "Ernst Haeckel and Monism", Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, (1998).
  • (with E. Ernst) "The Nuremberg Medical Trial: Have We Learned the Lessons?", Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 131 (1998) 130-135.
  • "Austrian Medical Refugees in Great Britain: from Marginal Aliens to Established Professionals", Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, vol. 110 (1998) 158-61.
  • "Biology", "Biochemistry", "Theodor Boveri", "Friedrich Sauerbruch", "Otto Warburg" in : J. Doerr (ed.). Dictionary of German History (New York: Garland , 1998).
  • "Die deutsche Wahrnehmung des Fleckfiebers als Drohung aus dem Osten im 1. und 2. Weltkrieg", Medizingeschichte und Gesellschaftskritik. Festschrift für Gerhard Baader (Husum: Matthiesen Verlag, 1997), pp. 324-339.
  • "Purity and Epidemic Danger in German-occupied Poland during the First World War", Paedagogica Historica, vol. 33 (1997) 825-32.
  • "Conceptualising Biology. The Contribution of Herbert Spencer", La Lettre de la Maison française d'Oxford, no. 7 (1997) 84-90.
  • "Philanthropy and World Health: the Rockefeller Foundation and the League of Nations Health Organisation", Minerva, vol. 35 (1997) 269-81  (Special issue edited by K.W. Rose, D. Shute, and D. Stapleton on philanthropy and institution-building in the twentieth century).
  • "Biological Tests and Clinical Trials: International Verdicts on the Nuremberg Medical Trial", La Lettre de la Maison française d'Oxford, no. 6 (1997) 114-123.
  • "Purity and Epidemic Danger in German Occupied Poland during the First World War", Paedagogica Historica, ns vol. 33 (1997) 825-32.
  • "Human Guinea Pigs and the Ethics of Experimentation: the BMJ's Correspondent at the Nuremberg Medical Trial", British Medical Journal, vol. 313 (1996) 1467-1470. Revised version in: Len Doyal and Jeffrey S. Tobias (eds) Informed Consent in Medical Research, London: BMJ Books, 2001, pp. 15-19. French version (transl. F. Eytan), "Les cobayes humains et l'éthique de l'experimentation: le correspondant de BMJ au procès des médecins á Nuremberg', JAMIF, no. 459 (1997) 36.
  • " 'Victory with Vaccines', The Problem of Typhus Vaccines during the Second World War", S.A. Plotkin and B. Fantini (eds), Vaccina, Vaccination, Vaccinology, Jenner, Pasteur and their Successors, Paris: Publications Elsevier, 1996, pp. 341-347. Extended French-language version: "La 'victoire par les vaccins': les vaccins contre le typhus pendant la Seconde Guerre Mondiale", A-M Moulin. (ed.), L'Aventure de la Vaccination, Paris: Fayard, 1996, pp. 229-247.
  • "Ärzte als Richter: Internationale Reaktionen auf die Medizinverbrechen des Nürnberger Ärzteprozesses in den Jahren 1946-1947", C. Wiesemann and A. Frewer (eds), Medizin und Ethik im Zeichen von Auschwitz. 50 Jahre Nürnberger Ärzteprozess, (Erlanger Studien zur Ethik in der Medizin) Erlangen and Jena: Palm und Enke, 1996, pp. 31-44.
  • "Die Entwicklung der Inneren Medizin im 19. Jahrhundert und ihre Auswirkungen auf Organisation und Funktion des Krankenhauses - am Beispiel der Kinderkrankenhäuser und der Serumtherapie in Paris, London und Berlin", A. Labisch and R. Spree (eds), "Einen jedem Kranken in einem Hospitale sein eigenes Bett". Zur Sozialgeschichte des Allgemeinen Krankenhauses in Deutschland im 19. Jahrhundert, Frankfurt a.M.: Campus, 1996, pp. 167-183.
  • "The First World War and the Campaigns against Lice: Comparing British and German Sanitary Measures", W.U. Eckart and C. Gradmann (eds), Die Medizin und der Erste Weltkrieg, Pfaffenweiler: Centaurus, 1996, pp. 227-240.
  • "Introduction: Constructing International Health between the Wars", Weindling (ed), International Health Organisations, pp. 1-16.
  • "Understanding Nazi Racism: Precursors and Perpetrators", M. Burleigh (ed.), Confronting the Nazi Past. New Debates on Modern German History, London: Collins and Brown, History Today Books, 1996, pp. 66-83.
  • "The Impact of German Medical Scientists on British Medicine: a Case-study of Oxford", M. Ash, W. Mattern and A. Söllner (eds), Forced Migration and Scientific Change: Emigré German-speaking Scientists and Scholars after 1933, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp.87-114. Abbreviated as "An Oxford Class List", Oxford Magazine, no. 95 (1993) 2-8.
  • “Human Experiments in Nazi Germany: Reflections on Ernst Klee, Auschwitz. Die NS-Medizin und ihre Opfer and Ärzte ohne Gewissen (1996)”, Medizinhistorisches Journal, vol. 33 (1998) 161-178.
  • "Social Medicine at the League of Nations Health Organisation and International Labour Office Compared', Weindling (ed), International Health Organisations, pp. 134-153.
  • "The Role of International Organisations in Setting Nutritional Standards in the 1920s and 30s", A. Kamminga and A. Cunningham (eds), The Science and Culture of Nutrition, The Wellcome Institute Series in the History of Medicine, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1995, pp. 319-332.
  • "Between Bacteriology and Virology: the Development of Typhus Vaccines between the First and Second World Wars", History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, vol. 17 (1995) 237-246.
  • (with Larry Stewart) "Philosophical Threads: Natural Philosophy and Public Experiment among the Weavers of Spitalfields, British Journal for the History of Science, vol. 28 (1995) 1-26.
  • "A Transfusion of Medical Expertise: Medical Refugees in Britain, 1930-1950", The Wellcome Trust Review, vol. 4 (1995), 43-47.
  • "The League of Nations and Medical Communication between the First and Second World Wars", P. Corsi and R. Chartier (eds), Sciences et Langues en Europe, Paris: Centre Alexandre Koyré, 1996, pp. 209-220.
  • "Die medizinischen Wissenschaften und die Gewerbekrankheiten. Die Sektion für betrieblichen Gesundheitsschutz in der internationalen Arbeitsorganisation', P. Sarasin and J. Tanner (eds), Physiologie und industrielle Gesellschaft. Studien zur Verwissenschaftlichung des Körpers im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, pp. 398-418.
  • "Rainer Fetscher", "Johannes Fibiger", "Carl Gegenbaur", "Ernst Haeckel", "Magnus Hirschfeld", "Émile Roux", "Wilhelm Roux", "August Weismann", "Heinz Zeiss", in: W.U. Eckart and C. Gradmann (eds), Ärztelexikon - Von der Antike bis zum zwanzigsten Jahrhundert, Munich: C.H. Beck, 1995, pp. 131, 132, 154, 167-8, 190, 311-2, 375, 389-90. 2 edn Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2001. 
  • "The Uses and Abuses of Biological Technologies: a Study of Zyklon B and Gas Disinfestation between the First World War and the Holocaust", History and Technology, vol. 11 (1994) 291-298.
  • "Die weltanschaulichen Hintergründe der Fleckfieberbekämpfung im Zweiten Weltkrieg", C. Meinel and P. Voswinckel (eds), Medizin, Naturwissenschaft, Technik und Nationalsozialismus - Kontinuitäten und Diskontinuitäten, Stuttgart: Verlag für die Geschichte der Medizin, Naturwissenschaft und der Technik, 1994, pp. 129-135.
  • "Public Health in Germany", D. Porter (ed.), The History of Public Health and the Modern State, The Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1994, pp. 119-131.
  • "Sexually Transmitted Diseases between Imperial and Nazi Germany", Genitourinary Medicine, vol. 69 (1994) 284-289.
  • "From Sentiment to Science: Children's Organisations between the First and Second World Wars", Disasters. The Journal of Disaster Studies and Management, vol. 18 (1994) 203-221 (= Children and Childhood in Emergency Policy and Practice 1919-1994. A Special Issue to Mark the 75th Anniversary of the Save the Children (U.K.).
  • (with Margaret Pelling and Mark Harrison) "The Industrial Revolution, 1750 to 1848", C. Webster (ed), Caring for Health: History and Diversity, Buckingham: Open University Press, 1993, pp. 38-62.. 3 revised  edn 2001, pp. 61-96.
  • (with Margaret Pelling, Virginia Berridge and Mark Harrison) "The Era of Public Health, 1848-1915", Webster (ed), Caring for Health: History and Diversity, pp. 63-86. 3 revised edn pp. 97-132.
  • (with Virginia Berridge and Mark Harrison), "The Impact of War and Depression, 1918 to 1948", Webster (ed), Caring for Health: History and Diversity, pp. 87-106, 3 revised edn  pp. 133-66.
  • (with Anne Crowther) "Editorial", Social History of Medicine, vol. 6 (1993) 1-2.
  • "The University's Contribution to the Life Sciences and Medicine", J. Prest (ed.), Illustrated History of Oxford University, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 269-300.
  • "Science Policy in Imperial Germany [essay review]", Bulletin of the German Historical Institute London, vol.15 no.2 (1993), pp. 38-62.
  • "The Immunological Tradition", W. Bynum and R. Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopaedia of the History of Medicine, London: Routledge, 1993, pp. 192-203.
  • "The Politics of International Co-ordination to Combat Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 1900 - 1980s", V. Berridge and P. Strong (eds), AIDS and Contemporary History, Cambridge Monographs in the History of Medicine, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 93-107.
  • (With Mathew Thomson), "Sterilisationspolitik in Grossbritannien und Deutschland", F-W. Kersting, K. Teppe, B. Walter (eds), Nach Hadamar: zum Verhältnis von Psychiatrie und Gesellschaft im 20. Jahrhundert, Paderborn: Schöningh, 1993  (Forschungen zur Regionalgeschichte 7), pp. 77.
  • "Heinrich Zeiss, Hygiene and the Holocaust", D. and R. Porter (eds), Doctors, Politics and Society: Historical Essays, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1993, pp. 174-187.
  • "Das goldener Zeitalter des städtischer Gesundheitswesens? Gesundheitspolitik in Berlin und London der zwanziger Jahre", P. Alter (ed.), Im Banne der Metropolen. Berlin und London in den zwanziger Jahren, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1993, in association with the German Historical Institute London, pp. 174-187.
  • "Medicine and the Holocaust. The Case of Typhus", I. Löwy (ed), Medicine and Change: Historical and Sociological Studies of Medical Innovation, Montrouge: J. Libbey, 1993, pp. 447-464.
  • "Asbestose als Ergebnis institutioneller Entschädigung und Steuerung", D. Milles (ed), Gesundheitsrisiken und soziale Sicherungen in der Geschichte, Bremerhaven: Wirtschaftsverlag NW, 1993, pp. 351-362.
  • "Public Health and Political Stabilisation: Rockefeller Funding in Interwar Central/Eastern Europe", Minerva, vol. 31 (1993), pp. 253-267. Abbreviated as, "Rockefeller Funding of Public Health in Interwar Central Europe, Rockefeller Archive Center Newsletter, (Fall 1992), 1-5.
  • "German-Soviet Medical Co-operation and the Institute for Racial Research, 1927 - ca.1935", German History, vol. 10 (1992) 177-206.
  • Alfred Blaschko (1858-1922), Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Imperial and Weimar Germany: A Bibliography, Research Publication no. 10, Oxford: Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, 1992.
  • "Psychiatry and the Holocaust", Psychological Medicine, vol. 22 (1992) 1-3.
  • "From Infectious to Chronic Diseases: Changing Patterns of Sickness in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries", A. Wear (ed.), The History of Medicine in Society, Cambridge University Press, 1992, pp. 303-316.
  • "The Survival of Eugenics in Twentieth Century Germany", American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 52 (1992) 643-649.
  • "Scientific Elites in fin de siècle Paris and Berlin: the Pasteur Institute and Robert Koch's Institute for Infectious Diseases Compared", A. Cunningham and P. Williams (eds), Laboratory Medicine in the Nineteenth Century, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992, pp. 170-188.
  • "Children's Hospitals and Diphtheria Wards in fin de siècle Paris, London and Berlin", R. Cooter (ed.), In the Name of the Child (= Studies in the Social History of Medicine vol.3), London and New York: Routledge, 1992, pp. 124-145.
  • "From Medical Research to Clinical Practice: Serum Therapy for Diphtheria in the 1890s", J. Pickstone (ed.), Medical Innovations in Historical Perspective, London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1992, pp. 72-83, 222-224.


  • "Degeneration und öffentliches Gesundheitswesen, 1900-1930: Wohnverhältnisse", J. Reulecke and A. Gräfin zu Castell-Rüdenhausen (eds), Stadt und Gesundheit 1900-1930. Zum Wandel von "Volksgesundheit" und kommunaler Gesundheitspolitik im 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert. 3. "Nassauer Gespräche" der Freiherr-vom-Stein-Gesellschaft, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1991, pp. 105-113.
  • "The Modernization of Charity in Nineteenth-century France and Germany", C. Jones and J. Barry (eds), Medicine and Charity before the Welfare State (= Studies in the Social History of Medicine vol. 2), London and New York: Routledge, 1991, pp. 190-206, Paperback edn. 1994.
  • "Medicine in Nazi Germany and its Aftermath", Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol. 65 (1991) 416-419.
  • "The Contribution of Central European Jews to Medical Science and Practice in Britain, 1930-1960", W.E. Mosse (ed.), Second Chance. The History of the German-speaking Jews in the United Kingdom, Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1991, pp. 243-254.
  • "The Kaiser Wilhelm/ Max-Planck-Gesellschaft" [essay review], German Historical Institute London. Bulletin, vol. 13 no. 2 (1991) 27-32.
  • "German History of Medicine Journals", Isis, vol. 82 (1991), pp. 309-311.
  • "Émile Roux et la Diphtérie", M. Morange (ed.), L'Histoire de l'Institut Pasteur, Paris: Éditions la Découverte, 1991, pp. 137-43.
  • " 'Mustergau' Thüringen. Rassenhygiene zwischen Ideologie und Machtpolitik", N. Frei (ed.), Medizin und Gesundheitspolitik in der NS-Zeit = Schriftenreihe der Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte Sondernummer, Munich: R. Oldenbourg Verlag in asssociation with Institut für Zeitgeschichte, 1991, pp. 81-97. 


  • "Les biologistes de l'Allemagne nazie: Idéologues ou technocrates?", J-L. Fischer and W. Schneider (eds), Histoire de la Génétique. Pratiques, Techniques et Théories, Paris: ARPEM & Editions Sciences en situation, 1990, pp. 127-152.
  • "Emil Adolf von Behring", "Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger", "Julius Wagner-Jauregg", D.M. Fox, M. Meldrum and I. Rezak (eds), Nobel Laureates in Medicine or Physiology. A Biographical Dictionary, New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1990, pp. 30-34, 177-181, 545-548.
  • "Bourgeois Values, Doctors and the State: the Professionalization of Medicine in Germany 1848-1933", D. Blackbourne and R.J. Evans (eds), The German Bourgeoisie. Essays on the Social History of the German Middle Class from the Late Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Century, London and New York: Routledge, 1990, pp. 198-223, Paperback edn. 1993.
  • "Eugenics and the Welfare State during the Weimar Republic", W.R. Lee and E. Rosenhaft (eds), The State and Social Change in Germany 1880-1960, Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1990, pp. 131-160, Paperback edn. 1994. Second revised edn. as State, Social Policy and Social Change in Germany 1880-1994, 1997, pp. 134-163.
  • "Hygienepolitik als sozialintegrative Strategie im späten Deutschen Kaiserreich", A. Labisch and R. Spree (eds), Medizinische Deutungsmacht im sozialen Wandel des 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhunderts, Bonn: Psychiatrie Verlag, 1989, pp. 37-56.
  • "The Sonderweg of German Eugenics: Nationalism and Scientific Internationalism", British Journal for the History of Science, vol. 22 (1989), 321-333.
  • "Ernst Haeckel, Darwinismus and the Secularization of Nature", J.R. Moore (ed.), History, Humanity and Evolution: Perspectives in the History of Evolutionary Naturalism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989, pp. 311-327.
  • "Journals and Societies", M. Shortland and A. Warwick (eds), Teaching the History of Science, Oxford: Blackwell, 1989, pp. 210-216.
  • "Population Policies under Fascism: Germany, Italy and Spain Compared", M.S. Teitelbaum and J. Winter (eds), Population, and Resources in Western Intellectual Traditions, Cambridge University Press, 1989; also in Population and Development Review, vol. 14, Supplement (1988), pp. 102-121.
  • "Foreword", to R. Spree, Health and Social Class in Imperial Germany, Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1988, pp. 1-4.
  • "The Medical Profession, Social Hygiene and the Birth Rate in Germany 1914-1918", J. Winter and R. Wall (eds), The Upheaval of War: Family, Work and Welfare in Europe 1914-1918, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp. 417-437; paperback edn 2005.
  • "Die Anfänge der Eugenik", Medizin im Nationalsozialismus, Kolloquien des Instituts für Zeitgeschichte, München: Oldenbourg Verlag, 1988, pp. 28-33.
  • "The Rockefeller Foundation and German Biomedical Science, 1920-40: from Educational Philanthropy to International Science Policy", N. Rupke (ed.), Science, Politics and the Public Good. Essays in Honour of Margaret Gowing, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1988, pp. 119-140.  Reprinted: G. Gemelli, J-F Picard, W.H. Schneider, Managing Medical Research in Europe. The Role of the Rockefeller Foundation (1920s-1950s), Bologna: CLUEB, 1999, 117-136.
  • "Patients and Practitioners: Virtues and Vices of the New Social History of Medicine [essay review]", History Workshop Journal, no. 24 (1987), 191-194.
  • "Medical Practice in Imperial Berlin: the Case Book of Alfred Grotjahn", Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol. 61 (1987) 391-410.
  • "Compulsory Sterilisation in National Socialist Germany", German History, no. 5 (1987) 10-24.
  • "Die Verbreitung rassenhygienischen/eugenischen Gedankengutes in bürgerlichen und sozialistischen Kreisen in der Weimarer Republik", Medizinhistorisches Journal, vol. 22, no. 4 (1987), pp. 352-368.
  • "Between Kultur and Scientific Expertise; Friedrich Althoff and Medical Education in Imperial Germany", Bulletin of the Society for the Social History of Medicine, no. 41 (1987) 46-50.
  • "German-Soviet Co-operation in Science: the Case of the Laboratory for Racial Research, 1931-1938", Nuncius. Annali di Storia Scienze, vol. 1 (1986) 103-109.
  • "Linking Self-Help and Medical Science: The Social History of Occupational Health", Weindling (ed.), The Social History of Occupational Health, pp. 2-31.
  • "Medicine and Modernisation: the Social History of German Health and Medicine", History of Science, vol. 24 (1986) 277-301.
  • "The Social History of German Health and Medicine. Conference Report", German History, no. 3 (1986) 31-37.
  • (With T. Horder), "Hans Spemann and the Organiser", in T. Horder, J. Witkowski and C. Wylie (eds), History of Embryology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986, pp. 183-241.
  • "Blood, Race and Politics", The Times Higher Education Supplement (19.7.1985), p. 13.
  • "Weimar Eugenics in Social Context; the Founding of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics", Annals of Science, vol. 42 (1985) 303-318.
  • From Bacteriology to Social Hygiene: Handlist of the Papers of Martin Hahn (1865-1934), Research Publication no. 5, Oxford: Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, 1985.
  • (With Pietro Corsi), "Darwinism in Germany, France and Italy", in D. Kohn (ed.), The Darwinian Heritage (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985), pp. 683-732.
  • "Soziale Hygiene, Eugenik und medizinische Praxis: Der Fall Alfred Grotjahn", Das Argument. Jahrbuch für kritische Medizin, (1984) 6-20.
  • "Nazi Medicine", German History, no. 1 (1984) 41-44.
  • "Darwinism and the Origin of Psychoanalysis" [essay review], British Journal for the History of Science, vol. 17 (1984) 64-67.
  • "Piu evoluzionista di Darwin", Kos, vol. 1 (1984) 93-110.
  • "Was Social Medicine Revolutionary? Virchow on Famine and Typhus in 1848", Bulletin of the Society for the Social History of Medicine, no. 34 (1984) 13-18.
  • "Robert Philip und die Anfänge der Tuberculose Fürsorgestellen", W. Kaiser and H. Huebner (eds), Robert Koch 1843-1910, Halle, 1983, pp. 243-250.
  • "Shattered Alternatives in Medicine" [essay review on Weimar health and welfare], History Workshop Journal, no. 16 (1983) 152-157.
  • (With A. Labisch and R. Spree), "Social History of Nineteenth and Twentieth-century German Medicine", Bulletin of the Society for the Social History of Medicine, no. 32 (1983) 40-45.
  • "The British Mineralogical Society, 1799 - c. 1806. A Case Study in Science and Social Improvement", I. Inkster and J.B. Morrell (eds), Metropolis and Province. Science in British Culture 1750-1850 (London: Hutchinson, 1983), pp. 120-150.
  • "Die Preussische Medizinalverwaltung und die 'Rassenhygiene'", A. Thom and H. Spaar (eds), Medizin und Faschismus, Berlin: Akademie für ärztliche Fortbildung, 1983, pp. 23-35.  New edn. Berlin: Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, 1985, pp. 48-56. Extended version as : "Die Preussische Medizinalverwaltung und die 'Rassenhygiene'. Anmerkungen zur Gesundheitspolitik der Jahre 1905-1933", Zeitschrift für Sozialreform, vol. 30 (1984) 675-687.
  • "Research Methods and Sources", in Corsi and Weindling (eds), Information Sources for the History of Science and Medicine, pp. 173-194.
  • "Periodical Literature and Societies", in Information Sources (as above), pp. 157-172, 501-508.
  • "Cell Biology and Darwinism in Imperial Germany: The Contribution of Oscar Hertwig (1849-1922)", London University PhD, 1982.
  • "A Platinum Gift to George III. A Gesture by William Hasledine Pepys, Cutler and Instrument Maker", Platinum Metals Review, vol. 26 (1982) 34-37.
  • "Die Entwicklung der Geschichte der Medizin in Grossbritannien", A. Voelcker and B. Thaler (eds), Die Entwicklung des Medizinhistorischen Unterrichts, Halle, 1982, pp. 172-177.
  • "Oscar Hertwig und die Physiologie", W. Kaiser and H. Huebner (eds), Hallesche Physiologie im Werden, Halle, 1981, pp. 144-148.
  • "Theories of the Cell State in Imperial Germany", C. Webster (ed.), Biology, Medicine and Society 1840-1940, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press for Past and Present Publications, 1981, pp. 99-155.
  • "Science and Sedition: How Effective were the Acts Licensing Lectures and Meetings, 1795-1819?", British Journal for the History of Science, vol. 13 (1980) 139-153.
  • "Social Concepts in Anatomy: Theories of the Cell State of Oscar Hertwig (1849-1922) and Wilhelm Waldeyer (1836-1921)", Bulletin of the Society for the Social History of Medicine, no. 26 (1980) 15-17.
  • "The Spitalfields Soup Society", in 250th Anniversary of Christ Church, Spitalfields, London, 1979.
  • "Geological Controversy and its Historiography: the Prehistory of the Geological Society of London", L.J. Jordanova and R.S. Porter (eds), Images of the Earth: Essays in the History of the Environmental Sciences, Chalfont St. Giles: British Society for the History of Science, 1979, pp. 248-271; 2 rev. edn, 1997, pp. 247-268.




Reviews have been published in:- American Historical Review, Annals of Science, British Journal for the History of Science, British Medical Journal, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Bulletin of the Society for the Study of Labour History, Canadian Jounal of History, Central European History, Dynamis, English Historical Review, German Historical Institute London. Bulletin, German History, Gesnerus, History, History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, History Workshop Journal, Isis, Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Journal of Modern History, Journal of Social Policy, Medical History, Monumenta Nipponica, Nature, New Community, Nuncius, Social History of Medicine, Times Higher Educational Supplement, Tmes Literary Supplement, Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte.


Paul Weindling, Anna von Villiez, Aleksandra Loewenau (Oxford Brookes University), and Nichola Farron (Amsterdam) - ‘Researching Experiment Victims - Findings and Problems’ [36:15]. This paper was presented at the international symposium: 'Reassessing Nazi Human Experiments and Coerced Research, 1933-1945: New Findings, Interpretations and Problems', 4 - 7 July 2013, Wadham College, Oxford.

'The Biology of the Holocaust' [29:40]. A paper presented by Paul Weindling at the conference: 'Crafting Humans:From Genesis to Eugenics and Beyond', 8-10 September 2011, Queens College, Oxford.



Professor Paul Weindling

Tel: +44 (0)1865 483485
Fax: +44 (0)1865 483887

postal address